• America's cities tend to be more expensive than other parts of the country.
  • Using recently released data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis, we looked at the most and least expensive places to live in the US.

America's big coastal cities are really expensive.

The Bureau of Economic Analysis recently released data on personal income and the cost of living in 2016 for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan parts of states, including the relative cost of living in different parts of the country.

Regional price parity is an index that sets the national average cost of goods and services at 100, with a particular region's RPP showing how the cost of living in that region compares with that average.

For example, the New York metropolitan area had an RPP of 122 in 2016, meaning the city and its suburbs are about 22% more expensive than the national average.

Meanwhile, Beckley, West Virginia, had an RPP of 78.8, meaning goods and services cost about four-fifths as much as the national average.

Here's a map illustrating the RPP of the country's metropolitan areas and of the parts of states that fall outside of them. Regions in blue are less expensive than the national average, with darker areas indicating the lowest relative cost of living. Those in red are more expensive than average, with darker red showing a higher cost of living.

most expensive places in america
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most expensive places in america

And here are the 10 most expensive (in red) and least expensive (in blue) metro areas in the US:

most and least expensive metro areas chart
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most and least expensive metro areas chart

Here are the 40 largest metro areas by 2016 population, ranked from most to least expensive, along with their overall regional price parities and RPPs for goods, rent, and non-rent services. Much, but not all, of the disparity in prices among cities comes from rent, rather than other goods and services:

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA

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Overall regional price parity: 127.1

Goods RPP: 110.4

Rent RPP: 213.3

Non-rent services RPP: 110.7

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA

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canadastock/Shutterstock

Overall regional price parity: 124.7

Goods RPP: 110.7

Rent RPP: 190.9

Non-rent services RPP: 111.0

New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA

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TTstudio/Shutterstock

Overall regional price parity: 122.0

Goods RPP: 109.9

Rent RPP: 154.9

Non-rent services RPP: 115.9

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV

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Overall regional price parity: 119.1

Goods RPP: 105.4

Rent RPP: 166.4

Non-rent services RPP: 110.7

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA

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Anton_Ivanov/Shutterstock

Overall regional price parity: 117.7

Goods RPP: 104.8

Rent RPP: 165.4

Non-rent services RPP: 107.4

San Diego-Carlsbad, CA

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REUTERS/Desmond Boylan

Overall regional price parity: 116.3

Goods RPP: 100.1

Rent RPP: 167.6

Non-rent services RPP: 105.6

Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH

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Charles Krupa/AP Images

Overall regional price parity: 111.1

Goods RPP: 101.4

Rent RPP: 141.0

Non-rent services RPP: 107.2

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA

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AP Photo/Elaine Thompson

Overall regional price parity: 110.5

Goods RPP: 106.3

Rent RPP: 134.0

Non-rent services RPP: 104.0

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL

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FashionStock.com/Shutterstock

Overall regional price parity: 107.6

Goods RPP: 100.6

Rent RPP: 129.4

Non-rent services RPP: 100.9

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA

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Jon Bilous/Shutterstock

Overall regional price parity: 107.4

Goods RPP: 101.6

Rent RPP: 117.6

Non-rent services RPP: 106.8

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD

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Tasos Katopodis/Getty Images

Overall regional price parity: 107.2

Goods RPP: 102.8

Rent RPP: 116.0

Non-rent services RPP: 105.2

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO

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Shutterstock

Overall regional price parity: 106.0

Goods RPP: 100.8

Rent RPP: 127.9

Non-rent services RPP: 99.3

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD

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iStock / Songquan Deng

Overall regional price parity: 105.9

Goods RPP: 101.2

Rent RPP: 111.3

Non-rent services RPP: 107.9

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI

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Sarah Jacobs/Business Insider

Overall regional price parity: 103.8

Goods RPP: 100.1

Rent RPP: 114.8

Non-rent services RPP: 102.2

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI

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Nic Lehoux

Overall regional price parity: 102.3

Goods RPP: 103.9

Rent RPP: 110.1

Non-rent services RPP: 96.7

Sacramento-Roseville-Arden-Arcade, CA

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Thomson Reuters

Overall regional price parity: 102.0

Goods RPP: 95.4

Rent RPP: 117.6

Non-rent services RPP: 102.0

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA

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Shutterstock/Josemaria Toscano

Overall regional price parity: 101.7

Goods RPP: 99.0

Rent RPP: 117.7

Non-rent services RPP: 97.5

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX

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Tim Warner/Getty

Overall regional price parity: 101.6

Goods RPP: 96.2

Rent RPP: 103.2

Non-rent services RPP: 107.3

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX

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Christian Petersen/Getty Images

Overall regional price parity: 100.2

Goods RPP: 99.0

Rent RPP: 103.2

Non-rent services RPP: 99.9

Austin-Round Rock, TX

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Kevin Harber/Flickr

Overall regional price parity: 100.0

Goods RPP: 97.9

Rent RPP: 117.2

Non-rent services RPP: 93.4

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL

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Sean Pavone/Shutterstock

Overall regional price parity: 99.8

Goods RPP: 96.5

Rent RPP: 103.5

Non-rent services RPP: 101.8

Providence-Warwick, RI-MA

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Shutterstock

Overall regional price parity: 99.7

Goods RPP: 98.7

Rent RPP: 98.2

Non-rent services RPP: 101.9

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL

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Kent Phillips/Disney Parks via Getty Images

Overall regional price parity: 98.0

Goods RPP: 97.9

Rent RPP: 104.8

Non-rent services RPP: 93.4

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC

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Patrickneil / Wikimedia Commons

Overall regional price parity: 97.9

Goods RPP: 97.8

Rent RPP: 104.9

Non-rent services RPP: 93.4

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV

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Shutterstock/Chad Zuber

Overall regional price parity: 97.8

Goods RPP: 95.4

Rent RPP: 96.5

Non-rent services RPP: 102.0

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ

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welcomia/Shutterstock

Overall regional price parity: 97.1

Goods RPP: 97.2

Rent RPP: 97.7

Non-rent services RPP: 96.5

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell, GA

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Sean Pavone/Shutterstock

Overall regional price parity: 96.3

Goods RPP: 98.3

Rent RPP: 93.5

Non-rent services RPP: 95.9

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI

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Wikimedia Commons

Overall regional price parity: 95.9

Goods RPP: 98.2

Rent RPP: 86.7

Non-rent services RPP: 99.3

Jacksonville, FL

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Logan Bowles/Getty Images

Overall regional price parity: 95.8

Goods RPP: 97.8

Rent RPP: 95.8

Non-rent services RPP: 93.4

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI

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Urban Land Institute

Overall regional price parity: 95.6

Goods RPP: 95.6

Rent RPP: 95.1

Non-rent services RPP: 95.8

San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX

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iStock

Overall regional price parity: 94.4

Goods RPP: 97.5

Rent RPP: 90.2

Non-rent services RPP: 93.4

Nashville-DavidsonMurfreesboroFranklin, TN

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Mark Skalny / Shutterstock.com

Overall regional price parity: 94.4

Goods RPP: 97.5

Rent RPP: 90.3

Non-rent services RPP: 93.4

Pittsburgh, PA

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ESB Professional/Shutterstock

Overall regional price parity: 94.3

Goods RPP: 98.1

Rent RPP: 78.9

Non-rent services RPP: 98.1

Kansas City, MO-KS

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User:Charvex / Wikimedia Commons

Overall regional price parity: 93.7

Goods RPP: 96.5

Rent RPP: 82.4

Non-rent services RPP: 97.1

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia, NC-SC

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Sean Pavone/Shutterstock

Overall regional price parity: 93.5

Goods RPP: 97.4

Rent RPP: 86.5

Non-rent services RPP: 93.4

Columbus, OH

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Checubus/Shutterstock

Overall regional price parity: 93.0

Goods RPP: 96.9

Rent RPP: 84.2

Non-rent services RPP: 93.4

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson, IN

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Thomson Reuters

Overall regional price parity: 92.8

Goods RPP: 97.2

Rent RPP: 83.0

Non-rent services RPP: 93.5

St. Louis, MO-IL

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Overall regional price parity: 90.8

Goods RPP: 94.3

Rent RPP: 82.7

Non-rent services RPP: 91.4

Cleveland-Elyria, OH

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Gregory Shamus/Getty Images

Overall regional price parity: 90.2

Goods RPP: 95.9

Rent RPP: 77.9

Non-rent services RPP: 90.9

Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN

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Checubus/Shutterstock

Overall regional price parity: 89.6

Goods RPP: 94.6

Rent RPP: 78.7

Non-rent services RPP: 90.9

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