Today, on average, a woman working full time earns 80.7 cents for every dollar a man working full time earns. Additionally, women's median annual earnings are $9,909 less than men's, according to data from the US Census Bureau .

While progress has been made toward pay parity between the sexes, the Institute for Women's Policy Research estimates that it will not be reached until 2059 .

The six charts below illustrate the significant pay discrepancies between men and women based on race, age, geographical location, and more.

The gender wage gap varies widely depending on the state

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According to data from the US Census Bureau, the average gender pay gap in the United States is around 19.3%, meaning that a woman working a full-time, year-round job earns 80.7% as much as her male counterpart earns. That gap can be larger or smaller, depending on the state someone lives in.

In Louisiana, for instance, the gender pay gap is 31.2%, the biggest wage gap in the nation. In 28 states, the gender pay gap is larger than the national average.

Most states have implemented laws against gender discrimination , and the 1964 Civil Rights Act protects women at the federal level. Yet disparities persist.

California has the smallest pay gap at 10.9%, with full-time, year-round women over 16 making a median salary of $46,783, while men make $52,487.

Cities show an even bigger discrepancy, especially for people of color

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As Business Insider's Leanna Garfield reported , salaries in 25 major US cities show an even greater range of pay discrepancy, particularly for women of color.

That analysis came from a report from the American Association of University Women, a nonprofit that advocates for gender equality, which Business Insider updated with the most recently available data.

Large disparities exist between men's and women's salaries in each of these cities, with the widest gaps appearing to exist between Hispanic women and white men. In Houston, Hispanic women earn around 53% of what white men make.

Out of the 25 metros, the narrowest gender wage gap overall is in Los Angeles, where women make approximately 90.7% of the median salary for men higher than the national average.

That said, the ratios for Hispanic and black women there are 49% and 59%, respectively, compared to white men. And white women in Los Angeles earn 83% of white men's salaries.

Overall, black and Hispanic women face the biggest pay gap when compared to white men

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Black and Hispanic women are most affected by the wage gap, especially when compared to white men, who make up the largest demographic segment of the workforce.

Asian women face the smallest wage gap they earn 97% of what white men earn, resulting in a pay gap of just 3%. White women earn 79% of what white men do, while black women earn 67% and Hispanic women earn 58%.

When compared to black men, black women earn 89% of what black men do, and Hispanic women make 86% of what Hispanic men do.

The larger disparity between white men's and women of color's earningscould be attributed to the fact that "women of color suffer both because of their gender and their race," according to an April 2016 report released by the Senate Joint Economic Committee's Democratic Staff.

Women with children gain no salary boost, while men with children are rewarded

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Women with childrenoften earn less after returning to the workforce, while the opposite is true for working fathers.

"Data suggest that women suffer a 'mommy penalty' after they have children," the Senate report says.

This gap is slowly closing, as data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics show that women with children now make slightly more than women without kids under 18 at home, which wasn't the case as recently as 2015.

While this disparity can be attributed to differences in careers and work hours between men and women who have children and those who do not, the report says that there is also a difference in how working mothers and fathers are perceived by management.

Some employers may view motherhood as a "signal of lower levels of commitment and professional competence." Working fathers, on the other hand, may be viewed as having "increased work commitment and stability."

Men with children see an earnings boost, and the difference between their weekly take-home pay was on average $172 higher than their counterparts without kids in 2017.

Women's earnings are lower than men's over the course of a lifetime

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The gender pay gap exists for workers across a lifetime.

A recent Business Insider analysis of Census data from the Minnesota Population Center's IPUMS program found that the median full-time, year-round male worker earns more than his female counterpart at every year of age.

The gap is narrower for younger workers, with the median 25-year-old woman earning about 91% of the median 25-year-old man. Meanwhile, the median 50-year-old woman earns just 77% of her 50-year-old male counterpart.

Women over the age of 75 are almost twice as likely to live in poverty, according to the Senate report .

Many women that age didn't work when they were younger, so they have fewer sources of retirement income than men their age.

In 1950 , about 30% of women worked in the US, compared to 70% of men, according to the US Department of Labor.

By 1980, the numbers were 42.5% and 57.5% and the numbers have largely plateaued since then. Today, about 57% of women are part of the workforce, compared to 69% of men.

The number of women promoted to the highest levels within companies reveals unconscious biases

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Very few women are CEOs of major corporations, or in the C-level suite of executives running corporate America, Business Insider's Rachel Gillett reported .

Data from a study put together by McKinsey & Co. and Lean In show how men are promoted up, while women fall by the wayside.

They surveyed132 companies employing more than 4.6 million people, and found only one in five C-level executives were women.

For every 100 women promoted to the manager level, another study found 130 men are promoted even though women consistently ask for promotions and raises more . One of the reasons the McKinsey study found for this was becausewhen women negotiate, people like them less for it.

According to the study, women who negotiate are more likely than men who negotiate to receive feedback that they are "intimidating," "too aggressive," or "bossy."

Men usually don't ask for raises or promotions because they're already in roles they want where they're making enough money, the study found.

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