The ranking of countries is by their perceived levels of public sector corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys.

About a week ago, the firm released the 2019 edition of the rankings which has seen Ghana fall two places further from its 78th position in 2018 to 80th, out of some 180 countries.

The two major political parties, the New Patriotic Party and the National Democratic Congress who are the only parties to rule in the Fourth Republic tend to refer to the annual rankings by Transparency International to either make a defense in their case or to chide their opponent.

Here’s a review of Ghana’s annual performance on the Corruption Perception Index under the various administrations of the Fourth Constitutional Republic of Ghana.

1. Jerry John Rawlings – NDC 1992/2001

Even though the Corruption Perception Indexing was instituted in 1995, 3 years after the commencement of Ghana’s Fourth Constitutional Republic, it had to take another three years for the country to make its debut on the rankings in 1998.

This was under the leadership of Jerry John Rawlings, who before the 1992 elections had spent years ruling as a military leader.

The country placed 55 out of 85 countries with a score of 3.6 when Ghana debuted in 1998. The scoring system by then was between 1 and 10. The score related to perceptions of the degree of which corruption is seen by business people with a perfect score of 10.00 meaning a corruption-free country.

Ghana was ranked 65 out of 99 countries, earning a score of 3.3 in 1999.

In 2000, Ghana despite placing 54 in the rankings made a score of 3.5 with the total number of countries ranked reducing to 95.

2. John Agyekum Kufuor – NPP 2001/2008

Ghana was ranked to 59 out of 91 countries, with a reduced score of 3.4 in 2001. In 2002 Ghana placed 50 in the rankings out of a total of 102 countries with a score of 3.9.

In 2003, Ghana scored 3.3 which earned the nation 73 in the ranking out of 133 nations. In the final year of Kufuor’s first term, 2004, Ghana placed 64 out of 145 countries scoring 3.6.

In 2005, Ghana slipped by rank and was placed 65 out of 158 countries with a score of 3.5. In 2006, the country was ranked farther to 70 out of 165 countries with a score of 3.3.

2007 was no different as Ghana ranked 69 out of 179 countries with a score of 3.7 and when Kufuor left office in 2008, Ghana was placed 67 out of 180 countries with a score of 3.9

3. John Evans Atta Mills – NDC 2008/2012

Ghana placed 69 out of 180 countries in its first year under Prof John Atta Mills as President. In 2010, Ghana was ranked 62 with a score of 4.1, in 2011, Ghana ranked 69 with a score of 3.9.

4. John Dramani Mahama – 2012/2016

John Mahama succeeded Atta Mills after the man he was serving as his vice passed away less than 6 months to the end of his term.

In that year Ghana was ranked 64 with a score of 45. In 2013, John Mahama started his four-year term after winning the 2012 elections. In 2012, Ghana ranked 63 with a score of 46, after the scoring system was changed to percentage.

In 2014, Ghana placed 61 with the same score as the previous year. In 2015, Ghana increased its score to 47 and was ranked 56.

5. Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo – 2017/to date

In his first year, Ghana’s ranked 81 with a reduced score of 40. In 2018 there was an improvement for Ghana as it was ranked 78 with a single point increase in its score of 41.

In the 2019 rankings which is the most recent one released over a week ago, Ghana took three steps back with a rank of 81, though the previous score of 41 was maintained.