As the World Health Organisation (WHO) ramps up its fight against antibiotic resistance, a new multi-country survey shows people are confused about this major threat to public health.
The aim of the campaign is to raise awareness and encourage best practices among the public, policymakers, health and agriculture professionals to avoid the further emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance.
The survey report made available to the Ghana News Agency by Gregory Härtl, WHO Communications Officer, said antibiotic resistance happens when bacteria change and become resistant to the antibiotics used to treat the infections they cause.
Over-use and misuse of antibiotics increase the development of resistant bacteria and the survey points out some of the practices, gaps in understanding and misconceptions which contribute to this phenomenon.
It said almost two thirds (64 per cent) of some 10, 000 people who were surveyed across 12 countries said they know antibiotic resistance as an issue that could affect them and their families, but how it affects them and what they can do to address it are not well understood.
For example, 64 per cent of respondents believe antibiotics could be used to treat colds and flu, despite the fact that antibiotics have no impact on viruses.
Close to one third (32 per cent) of people surveyed believe they should stop taking antibiotics when they feel better, rather than completing the prescribed course of treatment.
“The rise of antibiotic resistance is a global health crisis, and governments now recognise it as one of the greatest challenges for public health today. It is reaching dangerously high levels in all parts of the world,” said Dr Margaret Chan, WHO Director-General, in launching the survey findings.
“Antibiotic resistance is compromising our ability to treat infectious diseases and undermining many advances in medicine,” she said.
“The findings of this survey point to the urgent need to improve understanding around antibiotic resistance,” said Dr Keiji Fukuda, Special Representative of the Director-General for Antimicrobial Resistance.
“This campaign is just one of the ways we are working with governments, health authorities and other partners to reduce antibiotic resistance. One of the biggest health challenges of the 21st century will require global behaviour change by individuals and societies,” he added.
The multi-country survey included 14 questions on the use of antibiotics, knowledge of antibiotics and of antibiotic resistance; and a mix of online and face-to-face interviews were employed to elicit information.
It was conducted in 12 countries: Barbados, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, the Russian Federation, Serbia, South Africa, Sudan and Viet Nam.
Whereas not claiming to be exhaustive, this and other surveys will help WHO and partners to determine the key gaps in public understanding of this problem and misconceptions about how to use antibiotics to be addressed through the campaign.
Some common misconceptions revealed by the survey include three quarters (76 per cent) of respondents think that antibiotic resistance happens when the body becomes resistant to antibiotics and that in fact bacteria—not humans or animals—become resistant to antibiotics and their spread causes hard-to-treat infections.
Two thirds (66 per cent) of respondents believe that individuals are not at risk of a drug-resistant infection, if they personally take their antibiotics as prescribed.
While nearly half (44 per cent) of people surveyed think antibiotic resistance is only a problem for people who take antibiotics regularly.
In fact, anyone, of any age, in any country can get an antibiotic-resistant infection.
More than half (57 per cent) of respondents feel there is not much they can do to stop antibiotic resistance, while nearly two thirds (64 per cent) believe medical experts will solve the problem before it becomes too serious.
Another key finding of the survey was that almost three quarters (73 per cent) of respondents say farmers should give fewer antibiotics to food-producing animals.
To address this growing problem, a global action plan to tackle antimicrobial resistance was endorsed at the World Health Assembly in May 2015.
One of the plan’s five objectives is to improve awareness and understanding of antibiotic resistance through effective communication, education and training.