No incumbent president has lost a re-election bid in the 4th Republic of Ghana.

No party has gone beyond two terms in the 4th Republic.

No candidate has lost on the 3rd try.

Given this background, looks at reasons why President John Mahama lost to Nana Addo of the NPP in Ghana's election

Surely, the NDC has some advantages but Ghanaians believe tiredness of the current power problems and a consequent desire for change for progress will be all the people want in 2016.

Ghana's elections are determined by a 50%+1 vote principle, and with a 53% lead, Nana Addo looks set to become the first son of a former president also to become president in the history of Ghanaian politics.

Read more: NPP declares itself victors in 2016 election

1. Corruption

The government's corruption perception index was high with several survey results indicating that the populace was unhappy with several reported scandals. Unprecedented levels of inflation in cost of projects, ghost names on government payrolls that had even the  government's international partners holding back aid to nation proved fatal for  President John Mahama.

The scandals of the GYEEDA report and the government's inability to convince the public that it had done enough to retrieve funds and punish perpetrators as well as the the association with controversial business man Alfred Woyome in the GHS51million scandal all came back to haunt the president's bid for re-election.

Read more: Top 5 reasons why Mahama may lose election 2016

2. The economy

Ghana's economy has been on its last legs in the past 2 two years with the Finance Minister,Seth Terkper under pressure to reel in massive overspending and debt levels. The electorate was not impressed that the IMF had to come in and dictate how the government should run the economy. Coupled with a freeze on employment in the public sector and unprecedented unemployment levels,President Mahama faced an uphill task.

Read more: Ghanaians rise in defense of Chief Justice Georgina Wood

3. Complacency

The NDC was a victim of its own success from the 2012 elections as it relied less on door to door campaigns and more on ostentatious public displays of bill boards and television adverts. Mahama's campaign was designed to build on his considerable charm and appeal across the general voting populace with very little emphasis on a theme or deep sated interaction. Most voters,especially  first timers were not enamoured enough by the charm and were also not blown away by the lack of a message in the president's campaign.

4. Urbanization and Education

A look at Ghana's most recent census indicated that there had been an increase in the migration of literate and semi literate populace to peri-urban areas that had historically voted for the NDC. Voting trends indicated that the NPP tended to improve its standing in areas with high concentration of literacy and the results of the election have justified this the opposition's performance in areas like Trobu, Amasaman, Ngleshie-Amanfrom, Awutu Senya East among others.

5. Steal the NDC's playbook

The NPP's victory is a complete replica of the strategy employed by the NDC in the buildup to the election in 2008 when the NDC was in opposition. The NPP's focus on improving its polling station strategy,a focus on putting up likeable candidates rather than party favourites  in opposition strongholds played out well. There was also a concerted effort to resonate with the youth,using social media as  its most potent weapon. The consistent barrage of pressure groups like AFAG and Occupy Ghana also played into the hands of the opposition as the government was occupied with consistently chasing situations rather than being in charge of them.