The swearing-in took place at the Jubilee House, Accra.
Akufo-Addo had sent Anin Yeboah's name to parliament for vetting after which he was confirmed for the post by the lawmakers.
He was nominated by president Akufo-Addo for the top judiciary job following the retirement of the Sophia Akuffo as CJ.
In a speech, the president said Justice Yeboah will be an "effective leader of the judiciary and be a worthy success" to Mrs Akuffo.
He charged the new CJ to show "decency, discipline, deep-seated respected for the rule of law and modernization of the judiciary."
He said the judiciary is the "bulwark of the defense and liberty of our people" and pledged to be a "be a reliable partner of the judiciary."
The president also assured of his "willingness and preparedness to address" the limited number of courtrooms in the country.