The study on "Caesarean section deliveries in Ghana: Trends, disparities and influencing factors," found that C-section rate in Ghana has increased.

According to the study by Christiana Naa Momo Lokko of the University of Ghana, a PhD candidate, C-section has increased from "9.8 percent in 2003 to 18.2 percent as at 2014, and it is above the recommended WHO threshold of 15 percent."

The study examined the levels and trends as well as the influence of beliefs of childbearing women and community factors on C-section rise and disparities in Ghana.

The study employed mixed research methods approach. The quantitative method used the GDHS datasets of 2003, 2008 and 2014. The qualitative methods employed key informants in-depth interviews with health workers and childbearing women respectively from Greater Accra and Northern regions of Ghana as a case study.

Drawing on the Socio-Ecological Model, the study suggests that C-section rise and disparities could be attributed mostly to individual, interpersonal, community and medical factors. 

The results of the qualitative data revealed that Ghanaian women were similar on the score of susceptible to labour pains, perceived severity to C-section, cues to action and community beliefs. 

The study said women differ on the score of perceived barriers and perceived benefits of C-section delivery.

"Women in the Northern and Greater Accra regions identified cultural beliefs and financial barriers respectively as obstacles to C-section delivery," it said.

In addition, women aged 35 years or more, wealthy, educated and those who have had history of previous C-section were more likely to have C-section delivery, the study said. 

"Similarly, women whose partners accompanied them to ANC visits were more likely to deliver by C-sectio, the study further noted, adding: "Further, women who had average-sized babies and multiparous are less likely to have C-section."

Meanwhile, another study has found that 300,000 women around the world – almost all of them in developing countries – are dying every year as a result of having caesarean sections.

The research, led by Queen Mary University in London, analysed data from 12 million pregnancies.

And they found that the risk of death from caesarean sections in developing countries was far higher than they’d expected.